Gestalt Principles

  1. Similarity: Elements that look similar are perceived to have the same function.
  2. Proximity: Elements that are close together appear to be more related than elements that are spaced farther apart.
  3. Common Region: Elements located within the same area are perceived to be grouped together.
  4. Closure: Humans subconsciously ‘complete’ the ‘incomplete’ objects or scenarios they see or perceive
  5. Continuity: Elements that are in same line, or curve are related

(there are more…)

Bias! in Psychology

  1. Confirmation bias :- Your prior (vague) knowledge or beliefs influence your judgement. You think you know this already. because of preconception
  2. False consensus bias :- Believing your own choice as a choice of group. Overestimating that a large number of people will agree to your judgement
  3. Recency bias :- You subconsciously believe that the most recently/last heard/discussed idea is the best
  4. Primacy bias :- You tend to believe/recall what you heard first (may be from a first speaker) is the best. You don’t remember or don’t care what later said because the first speaker made strong points.
  5. Implicit bias :-  You subconsciously choose a set of people to interview, because you are comfortable with them.
  6. Sunk cost fallacy :- You will tend to keep the same ideas/work/investments, because you already invested in it.

Theme source: UX Design course by Google

IBM Enterprise Design Thinking–Notes from co-creator


The problems and solutions are an ongoing conversation of, the continuous cycle which consist of: Observe, Reflect and Make.


  • Focus on user outcomes (Pur users first. Measure by how we fulfill user’s needs. Know the difference between users and clients.
  • Restless reinvention
  • Diverse Empowered Teams


Three techniques for diverse teams to reflect together as we move from idea to outcome.

  • Hills – Statements of intent written as meaningful user outcomes.
  • Playbacks – Bring stakeholders into the loop in a safe place to ell stories and exchange feedback.
  • Sponsor Users – Real world users, who contribute their domain expertise to your team.

Observe: Ask each other


Reflect:  Ask each other


Make: Consider these questions